计算机科学的学科分类

转自我的知乎回答 www.zhihu.com/question/20179642/an...

就我知道的, 有两个分类:

Wiki上的分类 (这里只列出大分类) :


  • Mathematical foundations 数学基础

  • Theory of computation 计算机理论

  • Algorithms, data structures 算法与数据结构

  • Programming languages, compilers 编程语言, 编译器

  • Concurrent, parallel, distributed systems 并行, 分布式计算系统

  • Software engineering 软件工程

  • System architecture 计算机系统架构

  • Telecommunication, networking 通讯与网络

  • Databases 数据库

  • Artificial intelligence 人工智能

  • Computer graphics 计算机图形

  • Human–computer interaction 人机交互

  • Scientific computing 科学运算

ACM Computing Classification System

(1998):


A. General Literature

is for general computing literature. It includes subtopics for introductory and survey material, and for reference works.

常规计算机文学, 子话题包含学科 介绍 和 调查材料, 参考书目.

B. Hardware

Has subtopics for control structures and microprogramming, arithmetic and logic structures, memory structures, input/output and data communications, register-transfer-level implementation, logic design, integrated circuits, and performance and reliability.

硬件, 子话题包括 控制结构和微程序设计, 算术和逻辑结构, 内存结构, 输入/输出和数据通讯, 注册器级别的内部实现, 逻辑设计, 集成电路, 性能和可靠性.

C. Computer Systems Organization

concerns computer systems organization. The subtopics of this section are processor architectures, computer-communication networks, special-purpose and application-based systems, performance of systems, and computer system implementation.

计算机系统组成, 子话题包括: 处理器架构, 计算机通讯网络, 特殊用途和基于应用的系统, 系统性能, 计算机系统实现.

D. Software

This section includes two subtopics on software development: programming techniques and software engineering. Two more subtopics concern the software infrastructure needed to run other software: programming languages and operating systems.

软件, 在软件开发上, 有这两个话题: 编程技术 和 软件工程, 在软件实现架构上, 有这两个话题: 编程语言 和 计算机操作系统.

E. Data

includes subtopics on data structures, data storage representations, data encryption, coding and information theory, and files.

数据, 子话题包括: 数据结构, 数据存储理论, 数据加密, 编码和信息理论, 文件.

F. Theory of Computation

includes several topics from the theory of computation: computation by abstract devices, analysis of algorithms and problem complexity, logics and meanings of programs, mathematical logic, and formal languages.

计算机理论, 包含以下子话题: 抽象设备的计算, 算法分析和问题复杂性, 程序的逻辑和意义, 数学逻辑和形式语言.

G. Mathematics of Computing

Its subtopics are numerical analysis, discrete mathematics, probability and statistics, and mathematical software.

计算机数学, 子话题: 数字分析, 离散数学, 概率和统计, 数学软件.

H. Information Systems

It includes subtopics for models and principles, database management, information storage and retrieval, information systems applications, and information interfaces and presentation (e.g., HCI).

信息系统, 子话题: 数据库管理, 信息存储和检索, 信息系统应用, 信息接口和表现 (如: HCI - Human computer interactioin 人机交互).

I. Computing Methodologies

Covers a diverse set of subtopics concerning different application areas of computation: symbolic and algebraic manipulation, artificial intelligence, computer graphics, image processing and computer vision, pattern recognition, simulation and modeling, and document and text processing.

计算机方法论, 子话题: 符号和代数操纵, 人工智能, 计算机图像, 图片处理和计算机视觉, 模式识别, 模拟和模型, 文档和文本处理.

J. Computer Applications

also covers computer applications, but with a focus more on the different application areas and less on the different styles of computation one does in each of those areas. Its subtopics are administrative data processing, physical sciences and engineering, life and medical sciences, social and behavioral sciences, arts and humanities, computer-aided engineering, and computers in other systems.

计算机应用, 子话题: 可管理的数据处理, 物理科学和工程, 生命和医疗学科, 社交和行为科学, 艺术和人性, 计算机辅助工程, 以及其他系统中的计算机.

K. Computing Milieux

The subtopics of this section are the computer industry, history of computing, computers and education, computers and society, legal aspects of computing, management of computing and information systems, the computing profession, and personal computing.

技术环境, 子话题: 计算机产业, 计算机历史, 计算机和教育, 计算机和社会, 计算机法律, 计算机信息管理, 计算机专业, 个人计算机.

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