MySQL 索引 +explain

为准备面试,复习下。

一、索引的介绍

  1. 在mysql中,索引就是数据结构,已经在文件中按照索引进行排序好的结构.
  2. 使用索引可以加快我们的查询速度,但是对我们的数据增删改效率会降低.
  3. 因为一个网站大部分都是查询,我们主要优化select语句.

二、MySQL中索引的分类

  • 普通索引 key
  • 唯一索引 unique key unique key 别名 别名可忽略 别名可忽略
  • 主键索引 primary key(字段)
  • 全文索引myisam引擎支持(只对英文进行索引,mysql版本5.6也支持),sphinx(中文搜索)
  • 混合索引 多个字段组成的索引.如 key key_index(title,email)

三、索引的基本操作

1、给表添加索引

create table t_index(
    id int not null auto_increment,
    title varchar(30) not null default '',
    email varchar(30) not null default '',
    primary key(id),
    unique key uni_email(email) ,
    key key_title(title)
)engine=innodb charset=utf8;

查看表

desc tablename

mysql> desc t_index;
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id    | int(11)     | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| title | varchar(30) | NO   | MUL |         |                |
| email | varchar(30) | NO   | UNI |         |                |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
3 rows in set (0.01 sec)

查看表的创建语句

show create table tbalename/G

mysql> show create table t_index/G;
ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near '/G' at line 1
mysql> show create table t_index\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t_index
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t_index` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `title` varchar(30) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `email` varchar(30) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  UNIQUE KEY `uni_email` (`email`),
  KEY `key_title` (`title`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

2、删除索引

  1. 删除主键索引

alter table table_name drop primary key;

注意:

mysql> alter table t_index drop primary key;
ERROR 1075 (42000): Incorrect table definition; there can be only one auto column and it must be defined as a key

主键不一定是自增长,但是自增长一定是主键。

删除逐渐之前先要把主键索引的自增长去掉。

mysql> alter table t_index modify  id int not null;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

再来删除主键

mysql> alter table t_index drop primary key;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
  1. 删除普通和唯一的索引

alter table table_name drop key ‘索引的别名’

实际操作

mysql> alter table t_index drop key uni_email;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
mysql> alter table t_index drop key key_title;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

3、添加索引

alter table t_index add key key_title(title);
alter table t_index add key uni_email(email);
alter table t_index add primary key(id);

4、有无索引对比

create table article(
id int not null auto_increment,
no_index int,
title varchar(30) not null default '',
add_time datetime,
primary key(id)
);

插入数据

mysql> insert into article(id,title,add_time) values(null,'ddsd1212123d',now());

mysql> insert into article(title,add_time) select title,now() from article;
Query OK, 10 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 10  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> update article set no_index=id;

有无索引查询数据对比

mysql> select * from article where no_index=1495298;
+---------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
| id      | no_index | title     | add_time            |
+---------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
| 1495298 |  1495298 | ddsd1123d | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
+---------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.28 sec)
mysql> select * from article where id=1495298;
+---------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
| id      | no_index | title     | add_time            |
+---------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
| 1495298 |  1495298 | ddsd1123d | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
+---------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

表结构

mysql> show create table article\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: article
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `article` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `no_index` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `title` varchar(30) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `add_time` datetime DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=1572824 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

四、explain分析

使用explain可以对sql语句进行分析到底有没有使用到索引查询,从而更好的优化它.

我们只需要在select语句前面加上一句explain或者desc.

1、语法

explain|desc select * from tablename \G;

2、分析

用刚才的两个有无索引对比看看

mysql> mysql> explain select * from article where no_index=1495298\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE//单表查询
        table: article//查询的表名
   partitions: NULL
         type: ALL//索引的类型,从好到坏的情况是:system>const>range>index>All
possible_keys: NULL//可能使用到的索引
          key: NULL//实际使用到的索引
      key_len: NULL//索引的长度
          ref: NULL
         rows: 1307580//可能进行扫描表的行数
     filtered: 10.00
        Extra: Using where
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified
mysql> explain select * from article where id=1495298\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: const//当对主键索引进行等值查询的时候出现const
possible_keys: PRIMARY
          key: PRIMARY//实际使用到的所有primary索引
      key_len: 4//索引的长度4 = int占4个字节
          ref: const
         rows: 1//所扫描的行数只有一行
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: NULL
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

3、explain的type项分析

type项从优到差依次排序:

  • system:一般系统表只有一行记录的时候才会出现
  • const:当对主键值进行等值查询的时候会出现,如where id=666666
  • range:当对索引的值进行范围查询的时候会出现,如 where id<100000
  • index:当我们查询的字段恰好是我们索引文件中的值,就会出现
  • All:最差的一种情况,需要避免.

实际测试

mysql> use mysql;
mysql> explain select * from user\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: user
   partitions: NULL
         type: ALL
possible_keys: NULL
          key: NULL
      key_len: NULL
          ref: NULL
         rows: 3
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: NULL
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
mysql> use test;
mysql> explain select * from article where id=666666\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: const
possible_keys: PRIMARY
          key: PRIMARY
      key_len: 4
          ref: const
         rows: 1
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: NULL
mysql> explain select * from article where id>666666\G;
mysql> explain select * from article where id<666666\G;
mysql> explain select id  from article \G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: index
possible_keys: NULL
          key: PRIMARY
      key_len: 4
          ref: NULL
         rows: 1307580
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: Using index
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

如果查询的字段在索引文件存在,那么就会直接从索引文件中进行查询,我们把这种查询称之为索引覆盖查询。

出现all,我们需要避免,因为进行全面扫描。

对于出现all的,可以给该字段增加普通索引查询

mysql> alter table article add key key_no_index(no_index);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.92 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

type为ref,应该是关联,但是ref是const
mysql> explain select * from article where no_index=666666\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: ref
possible_keys: key_no_index
          key: key_no_index
      key_len: 5
          ref: const
         rows: 1
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: NULL
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

速度飞跃
mysql> select * from article where no_index=666666;
+--------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
| id     | no_index | title     | add_time            |
+--------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
| 666666 |   666666 | ddsd1123d | 2019-05-15 23:13:55 |
+--------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

4、使用索引的场景

1、 经常出现在where后面的字段,我们需要给他加索引
2、order by 语句使用索引的优化
mysql> explain select * from article order by id\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: index
possible_keys: NULL
          key: PRIMARY
      key_len: 4
          ref: NULL
         rows: 1307580
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: NULL
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

mysql> explain select * from article where id >0  order by id\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: range
possible_keys: PRIMARY
          key: PRIMARY
      key_len: 4
          ref: NULL
         rows: 653790
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: Using where
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.01 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

可以看出,即使是使用了索引但是几乎还是全表扫描。

加了where就少了一半

3、针对like的模糊查询索引的优化

where title like ‘%keyword%’ ====>全表扫描

where title like ‘keyword%’ ===>会使用到索引查询

给title加上铺索引

mysql> alter table article  add key key_index(title);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (2.16 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> show create table article\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: article
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `article` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `no_index` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `title` varchar(30) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `add_time` datetime DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  KEY `key_no_index` (`no_index`),
  KEY `key_index` (`title`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=1507299 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

因为%没有出现在like关键字查询的最左边,所以可以使用到索引查询

只要是like左边出现了%,就是全表查询

mysql> explain select * from article where title like 'a%'\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: range//范围查询
possible_keys: key_index
          key: key_index
      key_len: 92//
          ref: NULL
         rows: 1
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: Using index condition
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> explain select * from article where title like '%a%'\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: ALL//全表查询
possible_keys: NULL
          key: NULL
      key_len: NULL
          ref: NULL
         rows: 1307580
     filtered: 11.11
        Extra: Using where
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
4、limit语句的索引使用优化

针对于limit语句的优化,我们可以在它前面加order by 索引字段

如果order by的字段是索引,会先去索引文件中查找指定行数的数据

mysql> explain select sql_no_cache  * from article limit 90000,10 \G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: ALL//全表
possible_keys: NULL
          key: NULL
      key_len: NULL
          ref: NULL
         rows: 1307580
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: NULL
1 row in set, 2 warnings (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

mysql> explain select sql_no_cache  * from article order by id  limit 90000,10 \G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: index
possible_keys: NULL
          key: PRIMARY//使用到了索引
      key_len: 4
          ref: NULL
         rows: 90010
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: NULL
1 row in set, 2 warnings (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

另外一种针对于limit的优化方法:

索引覆盖+延时关联

原理:主要利用索引覆盖查询,把覆盖索引查询返回的id作为与我们要查询记录的id进行相关联,

mysql> select sql_no_cache  * from article limit 1000000,10;
+---------+----------+----------------+---------------------+
| id      | no_index | title          | add_time            |
+---------+----------+----------------+---------------------+
| 1196579 |  1196579 | ddsd12123123ad | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
| 1196580 |  1196580 | ddsd121231ad   | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
| 1196581 |  1196581 | ddsd1212123d   | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
| 1196582 |  1196582 | ddsd1123123d   | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
| 1196583 |  1196583 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
| 1196584 |  1196584 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
| 1196585 |  1196585 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
| 1196586 |  1196586 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
| 1196587 |  1196587 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
| 1196588 |  1196588 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:56 |
+---------+----------+----------------+---------------------+
10 rows in set, 1 warning (0.21 sec)

mysql> select t1.* from article as t1 inner join (select id as pid from article  limit 10000,10) as t2 on t1.id=t2.pid;
+-------+----------+----------------+---------------------+
| id    | no_index | title          | add_time            |
+-------+----------+----------------+---------------------+
| 13058 |    13058 | ddsd12123123ad | 2019-05-15 23:13:49 |
| 13059 |    13059 | ddsd121231ad   | 2019-05-15 23:13:49 |
| 13060 |    13060 | ddsd1212123d   | 2019-05-15 23:13:49 |
| 13061 |    13061 | ddsd1123123d   | 2019-05-15 23:13:49 |
| 13062 |    13062 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:49 |
| 13063 |    13063 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:49 |
| 13064 |    13064 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:49 |
| 13065 |    13065 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:49 |
| 13066 |    13066 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:49 |
| 13067 |    13067 | ddsd1123d      | 2019-05-15 23:13:49 |
+-------+----------+----------------+---------------------+
10 rows in set (0.00 sec)
5、复合(多列)索引的最左原则(面试经常问)

只要查询的时候出现复合索引的最左边的字段才会使用到索引查询

把article表的no_index和title建立复合索引:

//给no_index和title创建一个复合索引
mysql> alter table article add key index_no_index_title(no_index,title);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.18 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

//查看创建后的结构
mysql> show create table article\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: article
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `article` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `no_index` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `title` varchar(30) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `add_time` datetime DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  KEY `key_no_index` (`no_index`),
  KEY `key_index` (`title`),
  KEY `index_no_index_title` (`no_index`,`title`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=1507299 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

//删除no_index和title的索引
mysql> alter table article drop key key_index;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> alter table article drop key key_no_index;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> show create table article\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: article
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `article` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `no_index` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `title` varchar(30) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `add_time` datetime DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  KEY `index_no_index_title` (`no_index`,`title`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=1507299 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

//复合索引使用情况
mysql> explain select * from article where title='ddsd1123d' and no_index=77777\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: ref
possible_keys: index_no_index_title
          key: index_no_index_title
      key_len: 97
          ref: const,const
         rows: 1
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: NULL
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> explain select * from article where  no_index=77777\G; 
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: article
   partitions: NULL
         type: ref
possible_keys: index_no_index_title
          key: index_no_index_title
      key_len: 5
          ref: const
         rows: 1
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: NULL
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

五、慢查询日志

1、介绍

我们可以定义(程序员)一个sql语句执行的最大执行时间,如果发现某条sql语句的执行时间超过我们所规定的时间界限,那么这条sql就会被记录下来.

2、慢查询具体操作

  1. 先开启慢日志查询

    查看慢日志配置

    mysql> show variables like '%slow_query%';
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    | Variable_name       | Value                                            |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    | slow_query_log      | OFF                                              |
    | slow_query_log_file | /usr/local/mysql/data/caredeMacBook-Pro-slow.log |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
    

    开启慢日志查询

    mysql> set global slow_query_log=on;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
    

    再次检查慢日志配置

    mysql> show variables like '%slow_query%';
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    | Variable_name       | Value                                            |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    | slow_query_log      | ON                                               |
    | slow_query_log_file | /usr/local/mysql/data/caredeMacBook-Pro-slow.log |
    +---------------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
    
  2. 去mysql配置文件my.ini中指定sql语句的界限时间和慢日志文件的路径

    慢日志的名称,默认保存在mysql目录下面的data目录下面

    log-slow-queries = 'man.txt'

    设置一个界限时间

    long-query-time=5

    重启

六、profile工具

1、介绍

通过profile工具分析一条sql语句的时间消耗在哪里

2、具体操作

  1. 开启profile

  2. 执行一条SQL,(开启之后执行的所有SQL语句都会被记录下来

    ,以查看某条sql语句的具体执行时间耗费哪里)

  3. 根据query_id查找到具体的SQL

实例:

//查看profile设置
mysql> show variables like '%profil%';
+------------------------+-------+
| Variable_name          | Value |
+------------------------+-------+
| have_profiling         | YES   |
| profiling              | OFF   |//未开启状态
| profiling_history_size | 15    |
+------------------------+-------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

//开启操作
mysql> set profiling = on;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

//查看是否开启成功
mysql> show variables like '%profil%';
+------------------------+-------+
| Variable_name          | Value |
+------------------------+-------+
| have_profiling         | YES   |
| profiling              | ON    |//开启成功
| profiling_history_size | 15    |
+------------------------+-------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

具体查询

mysql> select * from article where no_index=666666;
+--------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
| id     | no_index | title     | add_time            |
+--------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
| 666666 |   666666 | ddsd1123d | 2019-05-15 23:13:55 |
+--------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.02 sec)

mysql> show profiles;
+----------+------------+---------------------------------------------+
| Query_ID | Duration   | Query                                       |
+----------+------------+---------------------------------------------+
|        1 | 0.00150700 | show variables like '%profil%'              |
|        2 | 0.01481100 | select * from article where no_index=666666 |
+----------+------------+---------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> show profile for query 2;
+----------------------+----------+
| Status               | Duration |
+----------------------+----------+
| starting             | 0.000291 |
| checking permissions | 0.000007 |
| Opening tables       | 0.012663 |//打开表
| init                 | 0.000050 |
| System lock          | 0.000009 |
| optimizing           | 0.000053 |
| statistics           | 0.001566 |
| preparing            | 0.000015 |
| executing            | 0.000002 |
| Sending data         | 0.000091 |//磁盘上的发送数据
| end                  | 0.000004 |
| query end            | 0.000007 |
| closing tables       | 0.000006 |
| freeing items        | 0.000037 |
| cleaning up          | 0.000010 |
+----------------------+----------+
15 rows in set, 1 warning (0.01 sec)
本帖由 Summer 于 1周前 加精
讨论数量: 3
lmaster

干货满满啊,本人亲身经历过什么都不改变,只是给 mysql 数据库表加索引,提高网站访问速度,从平均 40s 提升到不到 2s

3个月前 评论
zhangsen (楼主) 3个月前

请勿发布不友善或者负能量的内容。与人为善,比聪明更重要!