基于VGG的迁移学习

步骤

  • 读取本地的图片数据以及类别
  • 模型的结构修改(添加我们自定的分类层
  • freeze掉原始VGG模型
  • 编译以及训练和保存模型方式
  • 输入数据进行预测

读取本地图片

ImageDataGenerator:生产图片的批次张量值并且提供数据增强功能

参数:

  • rescale=1.0 / 255,:标准化
  • zca_whitening=False: # zca白化的作用是针对图片进行PCA降维操作,减少图片的冗余信息
  • rotation_range=20:默认0, 旋转角度,在这个角度范围随机生成一个值
  • width_shift_range=0.2,:默认0,水平平移
  • height_shift_range=0.2:默认0, 垂直平移
  • shear_range=0.2:# 平移变换
  • zoom_range=0.2:
  • horizontal_flip=True:水平翻转

使用flow

(x_train, y_train), (x_test, y_test) = cifar10.load_data()

gen = ImageDataGenerator(
        featurewise_center=True,
        featurewise_std_normalization=True,
        rotation_range=20,
        width_shift_range=0.2,
        height_shift_range=0.2,
        horizontal_flip=True)

for e in range(epochs):
        print('Epoch', e)
        batches = 0
        for x_batch, y_batch in gen.flow(x_train, y_train, batch_size=32):
            model.fit(x_batch, y_batch)

使用flow_from_directory

  • irectory=path,# 读取目录
  • target_size=(h,w),# 目标形状
  • batch_size=size,# 批数量大小
  • class_mode=’binary’, # 目标值格式,One of “categorical”, “binary”, “sparse”,
    • “categorical” :2D one-hot encoded labels
    • “binary” will be 1D binary labels
  • shuffle=True

这个API固定了读取的目录格式,参考:

image-20201229011243587

train_datagen = ImageDataGenerator(
            rescale=1./255,
            shear_range=0.2,
            zoom_range=0.2,
            horizontal_flip=True)

test_datagen = ImageDataGenerator(rescale=1./255)

train_generator = train_datagen.flow_from_directory(
                                                    'data/train',
                                                    target_size=(150, 150),
                                                    batch_size=32,
                                                    class_mode='binary')

validation_generator = test_datagen.flow_from_directory(
                                                        'data/validation',
                                                        target_size=(150, 150),
                                                        batch_size=32,
                                                        class_mode='binary')
# 使用fit_generator
model.fit_generator(
train_generator,
steps_per_epoch=2000,
epochs=50,
validation_data=validation_generator,
validation_steps=800)

VGG模型的修改

notop模型:不包含最后的3个全连接层。用来做fine-tuning专用,专门开源了这类模型。

# 在__init__中添加
self.base_model = VGG16(weights='imagenet', include_top=False)

做法:一个GlobalAveragePooling2D + 两个全连接层

如下:

from keras.layers import Dense, Input, Conv2D
from keras.layers import MaxPooling2D, GlobalAveragePooling2D

x = Input(shape=[8, 8, 2048])  
# 假定最后一层CNN的层输出为(None, 8, 8, 2048)
x = GlobalAveragePooling2D(name='avg_pool')(x)  # shape=(?, 2048)
# 取每一个特征图的平均值作为输出,用以替代全连接层
x = Dense(1000, activation='softmax', name='predictions')(x)  # shape=(?, 1000)

freeze 模型

让VGG结构当中的权重参数不参与训练,只训练我们添加的最后两层全连接网络的权重参数。

通过使用每一层的layer.trainable=False

    def freeze_vgg_model(self):
        for layer in self.base_model.layers:
            layer.trainable = False

编译和训练

在迁移学习中算法:学习率初始化较小的值,0.001,0.0001,因为已经在已训练好的模型基础之上更新,所以不需要太大学习率去学习

 def compile(self, model):
        model.compile(optimizer=keras.optimizers.Adam(),
                      loss=keras.losses.sparse_categorical_crossentropy,
                      metrics=['accuracy'])

使用ModelCheckpoint指定相关参数:

        calls = keras.callbacks.ModelCheckpoint(
            filepath='./snn_model/transfer-{epoch:02d}-{acc:.2f}.h5',
            monitor='val_acc',
            save_best_only=True,
            save_weights_only=True,
            mode='auto',
            period=1
        )
        fine_model.fit_generator(train_g, epochs=3, validation_data=test_g, callbacks=[calls])

预测

读取图片以及处理到模型中预测,加载我们训练的模型

 def predict(self, model):

        model.load_weights("./Transfer.h5")
        # 2、对图片进行加载和类型修改
        image = load_img("./data/test/dinosaurs/402.jpg", target_size=(224, 224))
        # 转换成numpy array数组
        image = img_to_array(image)
        # 形状从3维度修改成4维
        img = image.reshape((1, image.shape[0], image.shape[1], image.shape[2]))
        print("改变形状结果:", img.shape)
        # 3、处理图像内容,归一化处理等,进行预测
        img = preprocess_input(img)
        y_predict = model.predict(img)
        index = np.argmax(y_predict, axis=1)
        print(self.label_dict[str(index[0])])

完整代码

import numpy as np
from tensorflow.python.keras.models import Sequential
from tensorflow.python.keras.preprocessing.image import ImageDataGenerator
from tensorflow.python import keras
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.python.keras.applications.vgg16 import VGG16
from tensorflow.python.keras.preprocessing.image import load_img, img_to_array
from tensorflow.python.keras.applications.vgg16 import preprocess_input, decode_predictions

class Transfer(object):

    def __init__(self):
        # 定义数据定义方式
        self.train_generator = ImageDataGenerator(rescale=1.0 / 255.0)
        self.test_generator = ImageDataGenerator(rescale=1.0 / 255.0)
        self.train_dir = "./data/train"
        self.test_dir = "./data/test"
        # VGG16不包含全链接层模型
        self.base_model = VGG16(weights='imagenet', include_top=False)
        self.label_dict = {
            '0': 'bus',
            '1': 'dinosaurs',
            '2': 'elephants',
            '3': 'flowers',
            '4': 'horse'
        }
        pass

    def get_data(self):
        train_g = self.train_generator.flow_from_directory(
            self.train_dir,
            target_size=(224, 224),
            class_mode='binary',
            batch_size=32,
        )
        test_g = self.test_generator.flow_from_directory(
            self.test_dir,
            target_size=(224, 224),
            class_mode='binary',
            batch_size=32,
        )
        return train_g, test_g

    def refine_model(self):
        # 1、获取原notop模型得出
        x = self.base_model.outputs[0]
        # 2、在输出后面增加我们结构
        x = keras.layers.GlobalAveragePooling2D()(x)
        # 新的迁移模型
        x = keras.layers.Dense(1024, activation=tf.nn.relu)(x)
        y_p = keras.layers.Dense(5, activation=tf.nn.softmax)(x)
        fine_model = keras.models.Model(inputs=self.base_model.inputs,
                                        outputs=y_p)
        return fine_model

    def freeze_model(self):
        # 冻结模型,不训练
        for layer in self.base_model.layers:
            layer.trainable = False

    def compile(self, model):
        model.compile(optimizer=keras.optimizers.Adam(),
                      loss=keras.losses.sparse_categorical_crossentropy,
                      metrics=['accuracy']
                      )

    def fit(self, fine_model, train_g, test_g):
        calls = keras.callbacks.ModelCheckpoint(
            filepath='./snn_model/transfer-{epoch:02d}-{acc:.2f}.h5',
            monitor='val_acc',
            save_best_only=True,
            save_weights_only=True,
            mode='auto',
            period=1
        )
        fine_model.fit_generator(train_g, epochs=3, validation_data=test_g, callbacks=[calls])

    def predict(self, model):
        # 加载我们自己模型
        model.load_weights("./snn_model/transfer-03-0.98.h5")
        # 读取图片
        img = load_img("./data/test/bus/300.jpg", target_size=(224, 224))
        image = img_to_array(img)
        # 四维(224,224,3)—>(1,224,224,3)
        img = image.reshape([1, image.shape[0], image.shape[1], image.shape[2]])
        # 归一化处理
        image = preprocess_input(img)
        y_p = model.predict(image)
        # print(y_p)
        # 解码
        # label = decode_predictions(y_p)
        res = np.argmax(y_p, axis=1)
        print(f"预测了类别为:{self.label_dict[str(res[0])]}")


def train(cnn):
    train_g, test_g = cnn.get_data()
    model = cnn.refine_model()
    cnn.freeze_model()
    cnn.compile(model)
    cnn.fit(model, train_g, test_g)


def use_train(cnn):
    model = cnn.refine_model()
    cnn.predict(model)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    cnn = Transfer()
    # train(cnn)
    use_train(cnn)

旋律一张汽车的图片:

基于VGG的迁移学习

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