[云原生微服务架构](十一) Kubernetes高可用集群二进制部署(Runtime Containerd)

Kubernetes高可用集群二进制部署(Runtime Containerd)

Kubernetes(简称为:k8s)是Google在2014年6月开源的一个容器集群管理系统,使用Go语言开发,用于管理云平台中多个主机上的容器化的应用,Kubernetes的目标是让部署容器化的应用简单并且高效,Kubernetes提供了资源调度、部署管理、服务发现、扩容缩容、监控,维护等一整套功能,努力成为跨主机集群的自动部署、扩展以及运行应用程序容器的平台。 它支持一系列容器工具, 包括Docker、Containerd等。

一、集群环境准备

1.1 主机规划

主机IP地址 主机名 主机配置 主机角色 软件列表
192.168.10.12 k8s-master1 2C4G master kube-apiserver、kube-controller-manager、kube-scheduler、etcd、kubelet、kube-proxy、Containerd、runc
192.168.10.13 k8s-master2 2C4G master kube-apiserver、kube-controller-manager、kube-scheduler、etcd、kubelet、kube-proxy、Containerd、runc
192.168.10.14 k8s-master3 2C4G master kube-apiserver、kube-controller-manager、kube-scheduler、etcd、kubelet、kube-proxy、Containerd、runc
192.168.10.15 k8s-worker1 2C4G worker kubelet、kube-proxy、Containerd、runc
192.168.10.10 ha1 1C2G LB haproxy、keepalived
192.168.10.11 ha2 1C2G LB haproxy、keepalived
192.168.10.100 / / VIP(虚拟IP)

1.2 软件版本

软件名称 版本 备注
CentOS7 kernel版本:5.17
kubernetes v1.21.10
etcd v3.5.2 最新版本
calico v3.19.4
coredns v1.8.4
containerd 1.6.1
runc 1.1.0
haproxy 5.18 YUM源默认
keepalived 3.5 YUM源默认

1.3 网络分配

网络名称 网段 备注
Node网络 192.168.10.0/24
Service网络 10.96.0.0/16
Pod网络 10.244.0.0/16

二、集群部署

2.1主机准备

2.1.1 主机名设置

hostnamectl set-hostname xxx

关于主机名参见1.1小节主机规划表

2.1.2 主机与IP地址解析

cat >> /etc/hosts << EOF
192.168.10.10 ha1
192.168.10.11 ha2
192.168.10.12 k8s-master1
192.168.10.13 k8s-master2
192.168.10.14 k8s-master3
192.168.10.15 k8s-worker1
EOF

2.1.3 主机安全设置

2.1.3.1 关闭防火墙

systemctl stop firewalld
systmctl disable firewalld
firewall-cmd --state

2.1.3.2 关闭selinux

setenforce 0
sed -ri 's/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/' /etc/selinux/config
sestatus

2.1.4 交换分区设置

swapoff -a
sed -ri 's/.*swap.*/#&/' /etc/fstab
echo "vm.swappiness=0" >> /etc/sysctl.conf
sysctl -p

2.1.5 主机系统时间同步

安装软件
yum -y install ntpdate

制定时间同步计划任务
crontab -e
0 */1 * * * ntpdate time1.aliyun.com

2.1.6 主机系统优化

limit优化

ulimit -SHn 65535

cat <> /etc/security/limits.conf

  • soft nofile 655360
  • hard nofile 131072
  • soft nproc 655350
  • hard nproc 655350
  • soft memlock unlimited
  • hard memlock unlimited
    EOF
    ### 2.1.7 ipvs管理工具安装及模块加载
    

为集群节点安装,负载均衡节点不用安装

yum -y install ipvsadm ipset sysstat conntrack libseccomp

所有节点配置ipvs模块,在内核4.19+版本nf_conntrack_ipv4已经改为nf_conntrack, 4.18以下使用nf_conntrack_ipv4即可:

modprobe -- ip_vs 
modprobe -- ip_vs_rr 
modprobe -- ip_vs_wrr 
modprobe -- ip_vs_sh 
modprobe -- nf_conntrack 

创建 /etc/modules-load.d/ipvs.conf 并加入以下内容:

cat >/etc/modules-load.d/ipvs.conf <<EOF 
ip_vs 
ip_vs_lc 
ip_vs_wlc 
ip_vs_rr 
ip_vs_wrr 
ip_vs_lblc 
ip_vs_lblcr 
ip_vs_dh 
ip_vs_sh 
ip_vs_fo 
ip_vs_nq 
ip_vs_sed 
ip_vs_ftp 
ip_vs_sh 
nf_conntrack 
ip_tables 
ip_set 
xt_set 
ipt_set 
ipt_rpfilter 
ipt_REJECT 
ipip 
EOF

2.1.8 加载containerd相关内核模块

临时加载模块

modprobe overlay
modprobe br_netfilter

永久性加载模块

cat > /etc/modules-load.d/containerd.conf << EOF
overlay
br_netfilter
EOF

设置为开机启动
systemctl enable –now systemd-modules-load.service

2.1.9 Linux内核升级

> 在所有节点中安装,需要重新操作系统更换内核。

[root@localhost ~]# yum -y install perl

[root@localhost ~]# rpm --import https://www.elrepo.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-elrepo.org

[root@localhost ~]# yum -y install https://www.elrepo.org/elrepo-release-7.0-4.el7.elrepo.noarch.rpm
​

[root@localhost ~]# yum  --enablerepo="elrepo-kernel"  -y install kernel-ml.x86_64

[root@localhost ~]# grub2-set-default 0

[root@localhost ~]# grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg

2.1.10 Linux内核优化

cat <<EOF > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
fs.may_detach_mounts = 1
vm.overcommit_memory=1
vm.panic_on_oom=0
fs.inotify.max_user_watches=89100
fs.file-max=52706963
fs.nr_open=52706963
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max=2310720
​
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 600
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_probes = 3
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_intvl =15
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 36000
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 327680
net.ipv4.tcp_orphan_retries = 3
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 16384
net.ipv4.ip_conntrack_max = 131072
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 16384
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.core.somaxconn = 16384
EOF

sysctl --system

所有节点配置完内核后,重启服务器,保证重启后内核依旧加载
reboot -h now

重启后查看ipvs模块加载情况:
lsmod | grep –color=auto -e ip_vs -e nf_conntrack

重启后查看containerd相关模块加载情况:
lsmod | egrep ‘br_netfilter | overlay’

2.1.11 其它工具安装(选装)

yum install wget jq psmisc vim net-tools telnet yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2 git lrzsz -y

2.2 负载均衡器准备

2.2.1 安装haproxy与keepalived

yum -y install haproxy keepalived

2.2.2 HAProxy配置

cat >/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg<<"EOF"
global
 maxconn 2000
 ulimit-n 16384
 log 127.0.0.1 local0 err
 stats timeout 30s
​
defaults
 log global
 mode http
 option httplog
 timeout connect 5000
 timeout client 50000
 timeout server 50000
 timeout http-request 15s
 timeout http-keep-alive 15s
​
frontend monitor-in
 bind *:33305
 mode http
 option httplog
 monitor-uri /monitor
​
frontend k8s-master
 bind 0.0.0.0:6443
 bind 127.0.0.1:6443
 mode tcp
 option tcplog
 tcp-request inspect-delay 5s
 default_backend k8s-master
​
backend k8s-master
 mode tcp
 option tcplog
 option tcp-check
 balance roundrobin
 default-server inter 10s downinter 5s rise 2 fall 2 slowstart 60s maxconn 250 maxqueue 256 weight 100
 server  k8s-master1  192.168.10.12:6443 check
 server  k8s-master2  192.168.10.13:6443 check
 server  k8s-master3  192.168.10.14:6443 check
EOF

2.2.3 KeepAlived

主从配置不一致,需要注意。

ha1:
​
cat >/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf<<"EOF"
! Configuration File for keepalived
global_defs {
 router_id LVS_DEVEL
script_user root
 enable_script_security
}
vrrp_script chk_apiserver {
 script "/etc/keepalived/check_apiserver.sh"
 interval 5
 weight -5
 fall 2 
rise 1
}
vrrp_instance VI_1 {
 state MASTER
 interface ens33
 mcast_src_ip 192.168.10.10
 virtual_router_id 51
 priority 100
 advert_int 2
 authentication {
 auth_type PASS
 auth_pass K8SHA_KA_AUTH
 }
 virtual_ipaddress {
 192.168.10.100
 }
 track_script {
 chk_apiserver
 }
}
EOF

ha2:

cat >/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf<<”EOF”
! Configuration File for keepalived
global_defs {
router_id LVS_DEVEL
script_user root
enable_script_security
}
vrrp_script chk_apiserver {
script “/etc/keepalived/check_apiserver.sh”
interval 5
weight -5
fall 2
rise 1
}
vrrp_instance VI_1 {
state BACKUP
interface ens33
mcast_src_ip 192.168.10.11
virtual_router_id 51
priority 99
advert_int 2
authentication {
auth_type PASS
auth_pass K8SHA_KA_AUTH
}
virtual_ipaddress {
192.168.10.100
}
track_script {
chk_apiserver
}
}
EOF

### 2.2.4 健康检查脚本

> ha1及ha2均要配置

cat > /etc/keepalived/check_apiserver.sh <<”EOF”

#!/bin/bash
err=0
for k in $(seq 1 3)
do
check_code=$(pgrep haproxy)
if [[ $check_code == “” ]]; then
err=$(expr $err + 1)
sleep 1
continue
else
err=0
break
fi
done

if [[ $err != “0” ]]; then
echo “systemctl stop keepalived”
/usr/bin/systemctl stop keepalived
exit 1
else
exit 0
fi
EOF

chmod +x /etc/keepalived/check_apiserver.sh

### 2.2.5 启动服务并验证

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable –now haproxy
systemctl enable –now keepalived

ip address show

## 2.3 配置免密登录

> 在k8s-master1上操作

ssh-keygen

ssh-copy-id root@k8s-master1
ssh-copy-id root@k8s-master2
ssh-copy-id root@k8s-master3
ssh-copy-id root@k8s-worker1

ssh root@k8s-master1

## 2.4 部署ETCD集群

> 在k8s-master1上操作。

### 2.4.1 创建工作目录

mkdir -p /data/k8s-work

### 2.4.2 获取cfssl工具

cd /data/k8s-work
wget pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd...
wget pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux...
wget pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl-certinfo_...

说明:
cfssl是使用go编写,由CloudFlare开源的一款PKI/TLS工具。主要程序有:

  • cfssl,是CFSSL的命令行工具
  • cfssljson用来从cfssl程序获取JSON输出,并将证书,密钥,CSR和bundle写入文件中。

chmod +x cfssl*

mv cfssl_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl
mv cfssljson_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssljson
mv cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl-certinfo

cfssl version

Version: 1.2.0
Revision: dev
Runtime: go1.6

### 2.4.3 创建CA证书

#### 2.4.3.1 配置ca证书请求文件

cat > ca-csr.json <<”EOF”
{
“CN”: “kubernetes”,
“key”: {
“algo”: “rsa”,
“size”: 2048
},
“names”: [
{
“C”: “CN”,
“ST”: “Beijing”,
“L”: “Beijing”,
“O”: “kubemsb”,
“OU”: “CN”
}
],
“ca”: {
“expiry”: “87600h”
}
}
EOF

#### 2.4.3.2 创建ca证书

cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca

#### 2.4.3.3 配置ca证书策略

cfssl print-defaults config > ca-config.json

cat > ca-config.json <<”EOF”
{
“signing”: {
“default”: {
“expiry”: “87600h”
},
“profiles”: {
“kubernetes”: {
“usages”: [
“signing”,
“key encipherment”,
“server auth”,
“client auth”
],
“expiry”: “87600h”
}
}
}
}
EOF

server auth 表示client可以对使用该ca对server提供的证书进行验证
​
client auth 表示server可以使用该ca对client提供的证书进行验证

### 2.4.4 创建etcd证书

#### 2.4.4.1 配置etcd请求文件

cat > etcd-csr.json <<”EOF”
{
“CN”: “etcd”,
“hosts”: [
“127.0.0.1”,
“192.168.10.12”,
“192.168.10.13”,
“192.168.10.14”
],
“key”: {
“algo”: “rsa”,
“size”: 2048
},
“names”: [{
“C”: “CN”,
“ST”: “Beijing”,
“L”: “Beijing”,
“O”: “kubemsb”,
“OU”: “CN”
}]
}
EOF

#### 2.4.4.2 生成etcd证书

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes etcd-csr.json | cfssljson  -bare etcd

# ls
输出
ca-config.json  ca.csr  ca-csr.json  ca-key.pem  ca.pem  etcd.csr  etcd-csr.json  etcd-key.pem  etcd.pem

### 2.4.5 部署etcd集群

#### 2.4.5.1 下载etcd软件包

![image-20220319090935574](file://D:/BaiduNetdiskDownload/%E4%BA%91%E5%8E%9F%E7%94%9F%E5%A4%A7%E7%A4%BC%E5%8C%85/2.kubernetes%E4%BB%8E%E5%85%A5%E9%97%A8%E5%88%B0%E7%B2%BE%E9%80%9A/%E4%BA%8C%E8%BF%9B%E5%88%B6%E9%83%A8%E7%BD%B2Kubernetes%E9%AB%98%E5%8F%AF%E7%94%A8%E9%9B%86%E7%BE%A4%EF%BC%88Runtime%20Containerd%EF%BC%89/02_%E4%BA%8C%E8%BF%9B%E5%88%B6%E9%83%A8%E7%BD%B2Kubernetes%E9%AB%98%E5%8F%AF%E7%94%A8%E9%9B%86%E7%BE%A4%EF%BC%88Runtime%20Containerd%EF%BC%89/01_%E7%AC%94%E8%AE%B0/Kubernetes%E9%AB%98%E5%8F%AF%E7%94%A8%E9%9B%86%E7%BE%A4%E4%BA%8C%E8%BF%9B%E5%88%B6%E9%83%A8%E7%BD%B2%EF%BC%88Runtime%20Containerd%EF%BC%89.assets/image-20220319090935574.png?lastModify=1663139889)

![image-20220319091008943](file://D:/BaiduNetdiskDownload/%E4%BA%91%E5%8E%9F%E7%94%9F%E5%A4%A7%E7%A4%BC%E5%8C%85/2.kubernetes%E4%BB%8E%E5%85%A5%E9%97%A8%E5%88%B0%E7%B2%BE%E9%80%9A/%E4%BA%8C%E8%BF%9B%E5%88%B6%E9%83%A8%E7%BD%B2Kubernetes%E9%AB%98%E5%8F%AF%E7%94%A8%E9%9B%86%E7%BE%A4%EF%BC%88Runtime%20Containerd%EF%BC%89/02_%E4%BA%8C%E8%BF%9B%E5%88%B6%E9%83%A8%E7%BD%B2Kubernetes%E9%AB%98%E5%8F%AF%E7%94%A8%E9%9B%86%E7%BE%A4%EF%BC%88Runtime%20Containerd%EF%BC%89/01_%E7%AC%94%E8%AE%B0/Kubernetes%E9%AB%98%E5%8F%AF%E7%94%A8%E9%9B%86%E7%BE%A4%E4%BA%8C%E8%BF%9B%E5%88%B6%E9%83%A8%E7%BD%B2%EF%BC%88Runtime%20Containerd%EF%BC%89.assets/image-20220319091008943.png?lastModify=1663139889)

![image-20220319091037753](file://D:/BaiduNetdiskDownload/%E4%BA%91%E5%8E%9F%E7%94%9F%E5%A4%A7%E7%A4%BC%E5%8C%85/2.kubernetes%E4%BB%8E%E5%85%A5%E9%97%A8%E5%88%B0%E7%B2%BE%E9%80%9A/%E4%BA%8C%E8%BF%9B%E5%88%B6%E9%83%A8%E7%BD%B2Kubernetes%E9%AB%98%E5%8F%AF%E7%94%A8%E9%9B%86%E7%BE%A4%EF%BC%88Runtime%20Containerd%EF%BC%89/02_%E4%BA%8C%E8%BF%9B%E5%88%B6%E9%83%A8%E7%BD%B2Kubernetes%E9%AB%98%E5%8F%AF%E7%94%A8%E9%9B%86%E7%BE%A4%EF%BC%88Runtime%20Containerd%EF%BC%89/01_%E7%AC%94%E8%AE%B0/Kubernetes%E9%AB%98%E5%8F%AF%E7%94%A8%E9%9B%86%E7%BE%A4%E4%BA%8C%E8%BF%9B%E5%88%B6%E9%83%A8%E7%BD%B2%EF%BC%88Runtime%20Containerd%EF%BC%89.assets/image-20220319091037753.png?lastModify=1663139889)

wget https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases/download/v3.5.2/etcd-v3.5.2-linux-amd64.tar.gz

#### 2.4.5.2 安装etcd软件

tar -xvf etcd-v3.5.2-linux-amd64.tar.gz
cp -p etcd-v3.5.2-linux-amd64/etcd* /usr/local/bin/

#### 2.4.5.3 分发etcd软件

scp etcd-v3.5.2-linux-amd64/etcd* k8s-master2:/usr/local/bin/
​
scp etcd-v3.5.2-linux-amd64/etcd* k8s-master3:/usr/local/bin/

#### 2.4.5.4 创建配置文件

mkdir /etc/etcd

cat > /etc/etcd/etcd.conf <<”EOF”

#[Member]
ETCD_NAME=”etcd1”
ETCD_DATA_DIR=”/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd”
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS=”https://192.168.10.12:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS=”https://192.168.10.12:2379,http://127.0.0.1:2379"

#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS=”https://192.168.10.12:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS=”https://192.168.10.12:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER=”etcd1=https://192.168.10.12:2380,etcd2=https://192.168.10.13:2380,etcd3=https://192.168.10.14:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN=”etcd-cluster”
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE=”new”
EOF
```
说明:
ETCD_NAME:节点名称,集群中唯一
ETCD_DATA_DIR:数据目录
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS:集群通信监听地址
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS:客户端访问监听地址
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS:集群通告地址
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS:客户端通告地址
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER:集群节点地址
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN:集群Token
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE:加入集群的当前状态,new是新集群,existing表示加入已有集群

2.4.5.5 创建服务配置文件

mkdir -p /etc/etcd/ssl
mkdir -p /var/lib/etcd/default.etcd

cd /data/k8s-work
cp ca.pem /etc/etcd/ssl
cp etcd
.pem /etc/etcd/ssl

cat > /etc/systemd/system/etcd.service <<”EOF”
[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=-/etc/etcd/etcd.conf
WorkingDirectory=/var/lib/etcd/
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/etcd
–cert-file=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem
–key-file=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem
–trusted-ca-file=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem
–peer-cert-file=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem
–peer-key-file=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem
–peer-trusted-ca-file=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem
–peer-client-cert-auth
–client-cert-auth
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

2.4.5.6 同步etcd配置到集群其它master节点

创建目录
mkdir -p /etc/etcd
mkdir -p /etc/etcd/ssl
mkdir -p /var/lib/etcd/default.etcd

服务配置文件,需要修改etcd节点名称及IP地址
for i in k8s-master2 k8s-master3
do
scp /etc/etcd/etcd.conf $i:/etc/etcd/
done

k8s-master2:

cat /etc/etcd/etcd.conf

#[Member]
ETCD_NAME=”etcd2”
ETCD_DATA_DIR=”/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd”
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS=”https://192.168.10.13:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS=”https://192.168.10.13:2379,http://127.0.0.1:2379"

#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS=”https://192.168.10.13:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS=”https://192.168.10.13:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER=”etcd1=https://192.168.10.12:2380,etcd2=https://192.168.10.13:2380,etcd3=https://192.168.10.14:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN=”etcd-cluster”
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE=”new”

k8s-master3:

cat /etc/etcd/etcd.conf

#[Member]
ETCD_NAME=”etcd3”
ETCD_DATA_DIR=”/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd”
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS=”https://192.168.10.14:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS=”https://192.168.10.14:2379,http://127.0.0.1:2379"

#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS=”https://192.168.10.14:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS=”https://192.168.10.14:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER=”etcd1=https://192.168.10.12:2380,etcd2=https://192.168.10.13:2380,etcd3=https://192.168.10.14:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN=”etcd-cluster”
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE=”new”

证书文件
for i in k8s-master2 k8s-master3
do
scp /etc/etcd/ssl/* $i:/etc/etcd/ssl
done

服务启动配置文件
for i in k8s-master2 k8s-master3
do
scp /etc/systemd/system/etcd.service $i:/etc/systemd/system/
done

2.4.5.7 启动etcd集群

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable –now etcd.service
systemctl status etcd

2.4.5.8 验证集群状态

ETCDCTL_API=3 /usr/local/bin/etcdctl –write-out=table –cacert=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem –cert=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem –key=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem –endpoints=https://192.168.10.12:2379,https://192.168.10.13:2379,https://192.168.10.14:2379 endpoint health

+—————————-+——–+————-+——-+
| ENDPOINT | HEALTH | TOOK | ERROR |
+—————————-+——–+————-+——-+
| 192.168.10.14:2379 | true | 10.393062ms | |
| 192.168.10.12:2379 | true | 15.70437ms | |
| 192.168.10.13:2379 | true | 15.871684ms | |
+—————————-+——–+————-+——-+

检查ETCD数据库性能
ETCDCTL_API=3 /usr/local/bin/etcdctl –write-out=table –cacert=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem –cert=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem –key=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem –endpoints=https://192.168.10.12:2379,https://192.168.10.13:2379,https://192.168.10.14:2379 check perf

59 / 60 Boooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooom ! 98.33%
PASS: Throughput is 151 writes/s
PASS: Slowest request took 0.066478s
PASS: Stddev is 0.002354s
PASS

ETCDCTL_API=3 /usr/local/bin/etcdctl –write-out=table –cacert=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem –cert=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem –key=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem –endpoints=https://192.168.10.12:2379,https://192.168.10.13:2379,https://192.168.10.14:2379 member list

+——————+———+——-+—————————-+—————————-+————+
| ID | STATUS | NAME | PEER ADDRS | CLIENT ADDRS | IS LEARNER |
+——————+———+——-+—————————-+—————————-+————+
| 9b449b0ff1d4c375 | started | etcd1 | 192.168.10.12:2380 | 192.168.10.12:2379 | false |
| d1fbb74bc6a61e5c | started | etcd2 | 192.168.10.13:2380 | 192.168.10.13:2379 | false |
| f60b205fb02fe23c | started | etcd3 | 192.168.10.14:2380 | 192.168.10.14:2379 | false |
+——————+———+——-+—————————-+—————————-+————+

ETCDCTL_API=3 /usr/local/bin/etcdctl –write-out=table –cacert=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem –cert=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem –key=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem –endpoints=https://192.168.10.12:2379,https://192.168.10.13:2379,https://192.168.10.14:2379 endpoint status

+—————————-+——————+———+———+———–+————+———–+————+——————–+——–+
| ENDPOINT | ID | VERSION | DB SIZE | IS LEADER | IS LEARNER | RAFT TERM | RAFT INDEX | RAFT APPLIED INDEX | ERRORS |
+—————————-+——————+———+———+———–+————+———–+————+——————–+——–+
| 192.168.10.12:2379 | 9b449b0ff1d4c375 | 3.5.2 | 24 MB | true | false | 2 | 403774 | 403774 | |
| 192.168.10.13:2379 | d1fbb74bc6a61e5c | 3.5.2 | 24 MB | false | false | 2 | 403774 | 403774 | |
| 192.168.10.14:2379 | f60b205fb02fe23c | 3.5.2 | 24 MB | false | false | 2 | 403774 | 403774 | |
+—————————-+——————+———+———+———–+————+———–+————+——————–+——–+

2.5 Kubernetes集群部署

2.5.1 Kubernetes软件包下载

wget dl.k8s.io/v1.21.10/kubernetes-serv...

2.5.2 Kubernetes软件包安装

tar -xvf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz

cd kubernetes/server/bin/

cp kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler kubectl /usr/local/bin/

2.5.3 Kubernetes软件分发

scp kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler kubectl k8s-master2:/usr/local/bin/
scp kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler kubectl k8s-master3:/usr/local/bin/

scp kubelet kube-proxy k8s-master1:/usr/local/bin
scp kubelet kube-proxy k8s-master2:/usr/local/bin
scp kubelet kube-proxy k8s-master3:/usr/local/bin
scp kubelet kube-proxy k8s-worker1:/usr/local/bin

2.5.4 在集群节点上创建目录

所有节点

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/
mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/ssl
mkdir -p /var/log/kubernetes

2.5.5 部署api-server

2.5.5.1 创建apiserver证书请求文件

cat > kube-apiserver-csr.json << “EOF”
{
“CN”: “kubernetes”,
“hosts”: [
“127.0.0.1”,
“192.168.10.12”,
“192.168.10.13”,
“192.168.10.14”,
“192.168.10.15”,
“192.168.10.16”,
“192.168.10.17”,
“192.168.10.18”,
“192.168.10.19”,
“192.168.10.20”,
“192.168.10.100”,
“10.96.0.1”,
“kubernetes”,
“kubernetes.default”,
“kubernetes.default.svc”,
“kubernetes.default.svc.cluster”,
“kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local”
],
“key”: {
“algo”: “rsa”,
“size”: 2048
},
“names”: [
{
“C”: “CN”,
“ST”: “Beijing”,
“L”: “Beijing”,
“O”: “kubemsb”,
“OU”: “CN”
}
]
}
EOF

说明:
如果 hosts 字段不为空则需要指定授权使用该证书的 IP(含VIP) 或域名列表。由于该证书被 集群使用,需要将节点的IP都填上,为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP。
同时还需要填写 service 网络的首个IP(一般是 kube-apiserver 指定的 service-cluster-ip-range 网段的第一个IP,如 10.96.0.1)。

2.5.5.2 生成apiserver证书及token文件

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-apiserver-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-apiserver

cat > token.csv << EOF
$(head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ‘ ‘),kubelet-bootstrap,10001,”system:kubelet-bootstrap”
EOF

说明:
创建TLS机制所需TOKEN
TLS Bootstraping:Master apiserver启用TLS认证后,Node节点kubelet和kube-proxy与kube-apiserver进行通信,必须使用CA签发的有效证书才可以,当Node节点很多时,这种客户端证书颁发需要大量工作,同样也会增加集群扩展复杂度。为了简化流程,Kubernetes引入了TLS bootstraping机制来自动颁发客户端证书,kubelet会以一个低权限用户自动向apiserver申请证书,kubelet的证书由apiserver动态签署。所以强烈建议在Node上使用这种方式,目前主要用于kubelet,kube-proxy还是由我们统一颁发一个证书。

2.5.5.3 创建apiserver服务配置文件

cat > /etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf << “EOF”
KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS=”–enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,NodeRestriction,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota
–anonymous-auth=false
–bind-address=192.168.10.12
–secure-port=6443
–advertise-address=192.168.10.12
–insecure-port=0
–authorization-mode=Node,RBAC
–runtime-config=api/all=true
–enable-bootstrap-token-auth
–service-cluster-ip-range=10.96.0.0/16
–token-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/token.csv
–service-node-port-range=30000-32767
–tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem
–tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem
–client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem
–kubelet-client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem
–kubelet-client-key=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem
–service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem
–service-account-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem
–service-account-issuer=api
–etcd-cafile=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem
–etcd-certfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem
–etcd-keyfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem
–etcd-servers=https://192.168.10.12:2379,https://192.168.10.13:2379,https://192.168.10.14:2379
–enable-swagger-ui=true
–allow-privileged=true
–apiserver-count=3
–audit-log-maxage=30
–audit-log-maxbackup=3
–audit-log-maxsize=100
–audit-log-path=/var/log/kube-apiserver-audit.log
–event-ttl=1h
–alsologtostderr=true
–logtostderr=false
–log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes
–v=4”
EOF

2.5.5.4 创建apiserver服务管理配置文件

cat > /etc/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service << “EOF”
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=etcd.service
Wants=etcd.service

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kube-apiserver $KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
Type=notify
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

2.5.5.5 同步文件到集群master节点

cp ca*.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl/

cp kube-apiserver*.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl/

cp token.csv /etc/kubernetes/

scp /etc/kubernetes/token.csv k8s-master2:/etc/kubernetes
scp /etc/kubernetes/token.csv k8s-master3:/etc/kubernetes

scp /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem k8s-master2:/etc/kubernetes/ssl
scp /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver
.pem k8s-master3:/etc/kubernetes/ssl

scp /etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem k8s-master2:/etc/kubernetes/ssl
scp /etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca
.pem k8s-master3:/etc/kubernetes/ssl

scp /etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf k8s-master2:/etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf

cat /etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf

KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS=”–enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,NodeRestriction,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota
–anonymous-auth=false
–bind-address=192.168.10.13
–secure-port=6443
–advertise-address=192.168.10.13
–insecure-port=0
–authorization-mode=Node,RBAC
–runtime-config=api/all=true
–enable-bootstrap-token-auth
–service-cluster-ip-range=10.96.0.0/16
–token-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/token.csv
–service-node-port-range=30000-32767
–tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem
–tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem
–client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem
–kubelet-client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem
–kubelet-client-key=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem
–service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem
–service-account-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem
–service-account-issuer=api
–etcd-cafile=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem
–etcd-certfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem
–etcd-keyfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem
–etcd-servers=https://192.168.10.12:2379,https://192.168.10.13:2379,https://192.168.10.14:2379
–enable-swagger-ui=true
–allow-privileged=true
–apiserver-count=3
–audit-log-maxage=30
–audit-log-maxbackup=3
–audit-log-maxsize=100
–audit-log-path=/var/log/kube-apiserver-audit.log
–event-ttl=1h
–alsologtostderr=true
–logtostderr=false
–log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes
–v=4”

cp /etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf k8s-master3:/etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf

cat /etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf

KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS=”–enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,NodeRestriction,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota
–anonymous-auth=false
–bind-address=192.168.10.14
–secure-port=6443
–advertise-address=192.168.10.14
–insecure-port=0
–authorization-mode=Node,RBAC
–runtime-config=api/all=true
–enable-bootstrap-token-auth
–service-cluster-ip-range=10.96.0.0/16
–token-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/token.csv
–service-node-port-range=30000-32767
–tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem
–tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem
–client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem
–kubelet-client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem
–kubelet-client-key=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem
–service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem
–service-account-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem
–service-account-issuer=api
–etcd-cafile=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem
–etcd-certfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem
–etcd-keyfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem
–etcd-servers=https://192.168.10.12:2379,https://192.168.10.13:2379,https://192.168.10.14:2379
–enable-swagger-ui=true
–allow-privileged=true
–apiserver-count=3
–audit-log-maxage=30
–audit-log-maxbackup=3
–audit-log-maxsize=100
–audit-log-path=/var/log/kube-apiserver-audit.log
–event-ttl=1h
–alsologtostderr=true
–logtostderr=false
–log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes
–v=4”

scp /etc/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service k8s-master2:/etc/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service

scp /etc/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service k8s-master3:/etc/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service

2.5.5.6 启动apiserver服务

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable –now kube-apiserver

systemctl status kube-apiserver

测试

curl –insecure 192.168.10.12:6443/
curl –insecure 192.168.10.13:6443/
curl –insecure 192.168.10.14:6443/
curl –insecure 192.168.10.100:6443/

2.5.6 部署kubectl

2.5.6.1 创建kubectl证书请求文件

cat > admin-csr.json << “EOF”
{
“CN”: “admin”,
“hosts”: [],
“key”: {
“algo”: “rsa”,
“size”: 2048
},
“names”: [
{
“C”: “CN”,
“ST”: “Beijing”,
“L”: “Beijing”,
“O”: “system:masters”,
“OU”: “system”
}
]
}
EOF

说明:

后续 kube-apiserver 使用 RBAC 对客户端(如 kubelet、kube-proxy、Pod)请求进行授权;
kube-apiserver 预定义了一些 RBAC 使用的 RoleBindings,如 cluster-admin 将 Group system:masters 与 Role cluster-admin 绑定,该 Role 授予了调用kube-apiserver 的所有 API的权限;
O指定该证书的 Group 为 system:masters,kubelet 使用该证书访问 kube-apiserver 时 ,由于证书被 CA 签名,所以认证通过,同时由于证书用户组为经过预授权的 system:masters,所以被授予访问所有 API 的权限;
注:
这个admin 证书,是将来生成管理员用的kubeconfig 配置文件用的,现在我们一般建议使用RBAC 来对kubernetes 进行角色权限控制, kubernetes 将证书中的CN 字段 作为User, O 字段作为 Group;
“O”: “system:masters”, 必须是system:masters,否则后面kubectl create clusterrolebinding报错。

2.5.6.2 生成证书文件

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin

2.5.6.3 复制文件到指定目录

cp admin*.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl/

2.5.6.4 生成kubeconfig配置文件

kube.config 为 kubectl 的配置文件,包含访问 apiserver 的所有信息,如 apiserver 地址、CA 证书和自身使用的证书

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes –certificate-authority=ca.pem –embed-certs=true –server=192.168.10.100:6443 –kubeconfig=kube.config

kubectl config set-credentials admin –client-certificate=admin.pem –client-key=admin-key.pem –embed-certs=true –kubeconfig=kube.config

kubectl config set-context kubernetes –cluster=kubernetes –user=admin –kubeconfig=kube.config

kubectl config use-context kubernetes –kubeconfig=kube.config

2.5.6.5 准备kubectl配置文件并进行角色绑定

mkdir ~/.kube
cp kube.config ~/.kube/config
kubectl create clusterrolebinding kube-apiserver:kubelet-apis –clusterrole=system:kubelet-api-admin –user kubernetes –kubeconfig=/root/.kube/config

2.5.6.6 查看集群状态

export KUBECONFIG=$HOME/.kube/config

查看集群信息
kubectl cluster-info

查看集群组件状态
kubectl get componentstatuses

查看命名空间中资源对象
kubectl get all –all-namespaces

2.5.6.7 同步kubectl配置文件到集群其它master节点

k8s-master2:
mkdir /root/.kube

k8s-master3:
mkdir /root/.kube

scp /root/.kube/config k8s-master2:/root/.kube/config
scp /root/.kube/config k8s-master3:/root/.kube/config

2.5.6.8 配置kubectl命令补全(可选)

yum install -y bash-completion
source /usr/share/bash-completion/bash_completion
source <(kubectl completion bash)
kubectl completion bash > ~/.kube/completion.bash.inc
source ‘/root/.kube/completion.bash.inc’
source $HOME/.bash_profile

2.5.7 部署kube-controller-manager

2.5.7.1 创建kube-controller-manager证书请求文件

cat > kube-controller-manager-csr.json << “EOF”
{
“CN”: “system:kube-controller-manager”,
“key”: {
“algo”: “rsa”,
“size”: 2048
},
“hosts”: [
“127.0.0.1”,
“192.168.10.12”,
“192.168.10.13”,
“192.168.10.14”
],
“names”: [
{
“C”: “CN”,
“ST”: “Beijing”,
“L”: “Beijing”,
“O”: “system:kube-controller-manager”,
“OU”: “system”
}
]
}
EOF

说明:

hosts 列表包含所有 kube-controller-manager 节点 IP;
CN 为 system:kube-controller-manager;
O 为 system:kube-controller-manager,kubernetes 内置的 ClusterRoleBindings system:kube-controller-manager 赋予 kube-controller-manager 工作所需的权限

2.5.7.2 创建kube-controller-manager证书文件

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-controller-manager-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-controller-manager

ls


kube-controller-manager.csr
kube-controller-manager-csr.json
kube-controller-manager-key.pem
kube-controller-manager.pem

2.5.7.3 创建kube-controller-manager的kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes –certificate-authority=ca.pem –embed-certs=true –server=192.168.10.100:6443 –kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-credentials system:kube-controller-manager –client-certificate=kube-controller-manager.pem –client-key=kube-controller-manager-key.pem –embed-certs=true –kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-context system:kube-controller-manager –cluster=kubernetes –user=system:kube-controller-manager –kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig

kubectl config use-context system:kube-controller-manager –kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig

2.5.7.4 创建kube-controller-manager配置文件

cat > kube-controller-manager.conf << “EOF”
KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS=”–port=10252
–secure-port=10257
–bind-address=127.0.0.1
–kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig
–service-cluster-ip-range=10.96.0.0/16
–cluster-name=kubernetes
–cluster-signing-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem
–cluster-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem
–allocate-node-cidrs=true
–cluster-cidr=10.244.0.0/16
–experimental-cluster-signing-duration=87600h
–root-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem
–service-account-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem
–leader-elect=true
–feature-gates=RotateKubeletServerCertificate=true
–controllers=*,bootstrapsigner,tokencleaner
–horizontal-pod-autoscaler-use-rest-clients=true
–horizontal-pod-autoscaler-sync-period=10s
–tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-controller-manager.pem
–tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-controller-manager-key.pem
–use-service-account-credentials=true
–alsologtostderr=true
–logtostderr=false
–log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes
–v=2”
EOF

2.5.7.5 创建服务启动文件

cat > kube-controller-manager.service << “EOF”
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/kube-controller-manager.conf
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kube-controller-manager $KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

2.5.7.6 同步文件到集群master节点

cp kube-controller-manager*.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl/
cp kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/
cp kube-controller-manager.conf /etc/kubernetes/
cp kube-controller-manager.service /usr/lib/systemd/system/

scp kube-controller-manager.pem k8s-master2:/etc/kubernetes/ssl/
scp kube-controller-manager
.pem k8s-master3:/etc/kubernetes/ssl/
scp kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig kube-controller-manager.conf k8s-master2:/etc/kubernetes/
scp kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig kube-controller-manager.conf k8s-master3:/etc/kubernetes/
scp kube-controller-manager.service k8s-master2:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
scp kube-controller-manager.service k8s-master3:/usr/lib/systemd/system/

#查看证书
openssl x509 -in /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-controller-manager.pem -noout -text

2.5.7.7 启动服务

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable –now kube-controller-manager
systemctl status kube-controller-manager

kubectl get componentstatuses

2.5.8 部署kube-scheduler

2.5.8.1 创建kube-scheduler证书请求文件

cat > kube-scheduler-csr.json << “EOF”
{
“CN”: “system:kube-scheduler”,
“hosts”: [
“127.0.0.1”,
“192.168.10.12”,
“192.168.10.13”,
“192.168.10.14”
],
“key”: {
“algo”: “rsa”,
“size”: 2048
},
“names”: [
{
“C”: “CN”,
“ST”: “Beijing”,
“L”: “Beijing”,
“O”: “system:kube-scheduler”,
“OU”: “system”
}
]
}
EOF

2.5.8.2 生成kube-scheduler证书

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-scheduler-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-scheduler

ls

kube-scheduler.csr
kube-scheduler-csr.json
kube-scheduler-key.pem
kube-scheduler.pem

2.5.8.3 创建kube-scheduler的kubeconfig

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes –certificate-authority=ca.pem –embed-certs=true –server=192.168.10.100:6443 –kubeconfig=kube-scheduler.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-credentials system:kube-scheduler –client-certificate=kube-scheduler.pem –client-key=kube-scheduler-key.pem –embed-certs=true –kubeconfig=kube-scheduler.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-context system:kube-scheduler –cluster=kubernetes –user=system:kube-scheduler –kubeconfig=kube-scheduler.kubeconfig

kubectl config use-context system:kube-scheduler –kubeconfig=kube-scheduler.kubeconfig

2.5.8.4 创建服务配置文件

cat > kube-scheduler.conf << “EOF”
KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS=”–address=127.0.0.1
–kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-scheduler.kubeconfig
–leader-elect=true
–alsologtostderr=true
–logtostderr=false
–log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes
–v=2”
EOF

2.5.8.5创建服务启动配置文件

cat > kube-scheduler.service << “EOF”
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Scheduler
Documentation=github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/kube-scheduler.conf
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kube-scheduler $KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

2.5.8.6 同步文件至集群master节点

cp kube-scheduler*.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl/
cp kube-scheduler.kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/
cp kube-scheduler.conf /etc/kubernetes/
cp kube-scheduler.service /usr/lib/systemd/system/

scp kube-scheduler.pem k8s-master2:/etc/kubernetes/ssl/
scp kube-scheduler
.pem k8s-master3:/etc/kubernetes/ssl/
scp kube-scheduler.kubeconfig kube-scheduler.conf k8s-master2:/etc/kubernetes/
scp kube-scheduler.kubeconfig kube-scheduler.conf k8s-master3:/etc/kubernetes/
scp kube-scheduler.service k8s-master2:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
scp kube-scheduler.service k8s-master3:/usr/lib/systemd/system/

2.5.8.7 启动服务

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable –now kube-scheduler
systemctl status kube-scheduler

2.5.9 工作节点(worker node)部署

2.5.9.1 Containerd安装及配置

2.5.9.1.1 获取软件包

wget github.com/containerd/containerd/r...

2.5.9.1.2 安装containerd

tar -xf cri-containerd-cni-1.6.1-linux-amd64.tar.gz -C /

默认解压后会有如下目录:
etc
opt
usr
会把对应的目解压到/下对应目录中,这样就省去复制文件步骤。

2.5.9.1.3 生成配置文件并修改

mkdir /etc/containerd

containerd config default >/etc/containerd/config.toml

ls /etc/containerd/

config.toml

下面的配置文件中已修改,可不执行,仅修改默认时执行。
sed -i ‘s@systemd_cgroup = false@systemd_cgroup = true@’ /etc/containerd/config.toml

下面的配置文件中已修改,可不执行,仅修改默认时执行。
sed -i ‘s@k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.6@registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/pause:3.6@’ /etc/containerd/config.toml

cat >/etc/containerd/config.toml<<EOF

root = “/var/lib/containerd”
state = “/run/containerd”
oom_score = -999

[grpc]
address = “/run/containerd/containerd.sock”
uid = 0
gid = 0
max_recv_message_size = 16777216
max_send_message_size = 16777216

[debug]
address = “”
uid = 0
gid = 0
level = “”

[metrics]
address = “”
grpc_histogram = false

[cgroup]
path = “”

[plugins]
[plugins.cgroups]
no_prometheus = false
[plugins.cri]
stream_server_address = “127.0.0.1”
stream_server_port = “0”
enable_selinux = false
sandbox_image = “registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/pause:3.6”
stats_collect_period = 10
systemd_cgroup = true
enable_tls_streaming = false
max_container_log_line_size = 16384
[plugins.cri.containerd]
snapshotter = “overlayfs”
no_pivot = false
[plugins.cri.containerd.default_runtime]
runtime_type = “io.containerd.runtime.v1.linux”
runtime_engine = “”
runtime_root = “”
[plugins.cri.containerd.untrusted_workload_runtime]
runtime_type = “”
runtime_engine = “”
runtime_root = “”
[plugins.cri.cni]
bin_dir = “/opt/cni/bin”
conf_dir = “/etc/cni/net.d”
conf_template = “/etc/cni/net.d/10-default.conf”
[plugins.cri.registry]
[plugins.cri.registry.mirrors]
[plugins.cri.registry.mirrors.”docker.io”]
endpoint = [
https://docker.mirrors.ustc.edu.cn",
http://hub-mirror.c.163.com"
]
[plugins.cri.registry.mirrors.”gcr.io”]
endpoint = [
https://gcr.mirrors.ustc.edu.cn"
]
[plugins.cri.registry.mirrors.”k8s.gcr.io”]
endpoint = [
https://gcr.mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/google-containers/"
]
[plugins.cri.registry.mirrors.”quay.io”]
endpoint = [
https://quay.mirrors.ustc.edu.cn"
]
[plugins.cri.registry.mirrors.”harbor.kubemsb.com”]
endpoint = [
http://harbor.kubemsb.com"
]
[plugins.cri.x509_key_pair_streaming]
tls_cert_file = “”
tls_key_file = “”
[plugins.diff-service]
default = [“walking”]
[plugins.linux]
shim = “containerd-shim”
runtime = “runc”
runtime_root = “”
no_shim = false
shim_debug = false
[plugins.opt]
path = “/opt/containerd”
[plugins.restart]
interval = “10s”
[plugins.scheduler]
pause_threshold = 0.02
deletion_threshold = 0
mutation_threshold = 100
schedule_delay = “0s”
startup_delay = “100ms”
EOF

2.5.9.1.4 安装runc

由于上述软件包中包含的runc对系统依赖过多,所以建议单独下载安装。

默认runc执行时提示:runc: symbol lookup error: runc: undefined symbol: seccomp_notify_respond

wget github.com/opencontainers/runc/rel...

chmod +x runc.amd64

替换掉原软件包中的runc

mv runc.amd64 /usr/local/sbin/runc

runc -v

runc version 1.1.0
commit: v1.1.0-0-g067aaf85
spec: 1.0.2-dev
go: go1.17.6
libseccomp: 2.5.3

systemctl enable containerd
systemctl start containerd

2.5.9.2 部署kubelet

在k8s-master1上操作

2.5.9.2.1 创建kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig

BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN=$(awk -F “,” ‘{print $1}’ /etc/kubernetes/token.csv)

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes –certificate-authority=ca.pem –embed-certs=true –server=192.168.10.100:6443 –kubeconfig=kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-credentials kubelet-bootstrap –token=${BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN} –kubeconfig=kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-context default –cluster=kubernetes –user=kubelet-bootstrap –kubeconfig=kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig

kubectl config use-context default –kubeconfig=kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig

kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-system-anonymous –clusterrole=cluster-admin –user=kubelet-bootstrap

kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap –clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper –user=kubelet-bootstrap –kubeconfig=kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig

kubectl describe clusterrolebinding cluster-system-anonymous

kubectl describe clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap

2.5.9.2.2 创建kubelet配置文件

cat > kubelet.json << “EOF”
{
“kind”: “KubeletConfiguration”,
“apiVersion”: “kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1”,
“authentication”: {
“x509”: {
“clientCAFile”: “/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem”
},
“webhook”: {
“enabled”: true,
“cacheTTL”: “2m0s”
},
“anonymous”: {
“enabled”: false
}
},
“authorization”: {
“mode”: “Webhook”,
“webhook”: {
“cacheAuthorizedTTL”: “5m0s”,
“cacheUnauthorizedTTL”: “30s”
}
},
“address”: “192.168.10.12”,
“port”: 10250,
“readOnlyPort”: 10255,
“cgroupDriver”: “systemd”,
“hairpinMode”: “promiscuous-bridge”,
“serializeImagePulls”: false,
“clusterDomain”: “cluster.local.”,
“clusterDNS”: [“10.96.0.2”]
}
EOF

2.5.9.2.3 创建kubelet服务启动管理文件

cat > kubelet.service << “EOF”
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
Documentation=github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=docker.service
Requires=docker.service

[Service]
WorkingDirectory=/var/lib/kubelet
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kubelet
–bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig
–cert-dir=/etc/kubernetes/ssl
–kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.kubeconfig
–config=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.json
–cni-bin-dir=/opt/cni/bin
–cni-conf-dir=/etc/cni/net.d
–container-runtime=remote
–container-runtime-endpoint=unix:///run/containerd/containerd.sock
–network-plugin=cni
–rotate-certificates
–pod-infra-container-image=registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/pause:3.2
–root-dir=/etc/cni/net.d
–alsologtostderr=true
–logtostderr=false
–log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes
–v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

2.5.9.2.4 同步文件到集群节点

cp kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/
cp kubelet.json /etc/kubernetes/
cp kubelet.service /usr/lib/systemd/system/

for i in k8s-master2 k8s-master3 k8s-worker1;do scp kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig kubelet.json $i:/etc/kubernetes/;done

for i in k8s-master2 k8s-master3 k8s-worker1;do scp ca.pem $i:/etc/kubernetes/ssl/;done

for i in k8s-master2 k8s-master3 k8s-worker1;do scp kubelet.service $i:/usr/lib/systemd/system/;done

说明:
kubelet.json中address需要修改为当前主机IP地址。

2.5.9.2.5 创建目录及启动服务

mkdir -p /var/lib/kubelet
mkdir -p /var/log/kubernetes

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable –now kubelet

systemctl status kubelet

kubectl get nodes

NAME STATUS ROLES AGE VERSION
k8s-master1 NotReady 2m55s v1.21.10
k8s-master2 NotReady 45s v1.21.10
k8s-master3 NotReady 39s v1.21.10
k8s-worker1 NotReady 5m1s v1.21.10

kubectl get csr

NAME AGE SIGNERNAME REQUESTOR CONDITION
csr-b949p 7m55s kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet kubelet-bootstrap Approved,Issued
csr-c9hs4 3m34s kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet kubelet-bootstrap Approved,Issued
csr-r8vhp 5m50s kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet kubelet-bootstrap Approved,Issued
csr-zb4sr 3m40s kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet kubelet-bootstrap Approved,Issued

说明:
确认kubelet服务启动成功后,接着到master上Approve一下bootstrap请求。

2.5.9.3 部署kube-proxy

2.5.9.3.1 创建kube-proxy证书请求文件

cat > kube-proxy-csr.json << “EOF”
{
“CN”: “system:kube-proxy”,
“key”: {
“algo”: “rsa”,
“size”: 2048
},
“names”: [
{
“C”: “CN”,
“ST”: “Beijing”,
“L”: “Beijing”,
“O”: “kubemsb”,
“OU”: “CN”
}
]
}
EOF

2.5.9.3.2 生成证书

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy

ls kube-proxy*

kube-proxy.csr kube-proxy-csr.json kube-proxy-key.pem kube-proxy.pem

2.5.9.3.3 创建kubeconfig文件

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes –certificate-authority=ca.pem –embed-certs=true –server=192.168.10.100:6443 –kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy –client-certificate=kube-proxy.pem –client-key=kube-proxy-key.pem –embed-certs=true –kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-context default –cluster=kubernetes –user=kube-proxy –kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

kubectl config use-context default –kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

2.5.9.3.4 创建服务配置文件

cat > kube-proxy.yaml << “EOF”
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
bindAddress: 192.168.10.12
clientConnection:
kubeconfig: /etc/kubernetes/kube-proxy.kubeconfig
clusterCIDR: 10.244.0.0/16
healthzBindAddress: 192.168.10.12:10256
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
metricsBindAddress: 192.168.10.12:10249
mode: “ipvs”
EOF

2.5.9.3.5 创建服务启动管理文件

cat > kube-proxy.service << “EOF”
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kube-Proxy Server
Documentation=github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=network.target

[Service]
WorkingDirectory=/var/lib/kube-proxy
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kube-proxy
–config=/etc/kubernetes/kube-proxy.yaml
–alsologtostderr=true
–logtostderr=false
–log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes
–v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

2.5.9.3.6 同步文件到集群工作节点主机

cp kube-proxy*.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl/
cp kube-proxy.kubeconfig kube-proxy.yaml /etc/kubernetes/
cp kube-proxy.service /usr/lib/systemd/system/

for i in k8s-master2 k8s-master3 k8s-worker1;do scp kube-proxy.kubeconfig kube-proxy.yaml $i:/etc/kubernetes/;done
for i in k8s-master2 k8s-master3 k8s-worker1;do scp kube-proxy.service $i:/usr/lib/systemd/system/;done

说明:
修改kube-proxy.yaml中IP地址为当前主机IP.

2.5.9.3.7 服务启动

mkdir -p /var/lib/kube-proxy

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable –now kube-proxy

systemctl status kube-proxy

2.5.10 网络组件部署 Calico

2.5.10.1 下载

wget docs.projectcalico.org/v3.19/manif...

2.5.10.2 修改文件

3683 - name: CALICO_IPV4POOL_CIDR
3684 value: “10.244.0.0/16”

2.5.10.3 应用文件

kubectl apply -f calico.yaml

2.5.10.4 验证应用结果

kubectl get pods -A

NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
kube-system calico-kube-controllers-7cc8dd57d9-tf2m5 1/1 Running 0 72s
kube-system calico-node-llw5w 1/1 Running 0 72s
kube-system calico-node-mhh6g 1/1 Running 0 72s
kube-system calico-node-twj99 1/1 Running 0 72s
kube-system calico-node-zh6xl 1/1 Running 0 72s

kubectl get nodes

NAME STATUS ROLES AGE VERSION
k8s-master1 Ready 55m v1.21.10
k8s-master2 Ready 53m v1.21.10
k8s-master3 Ready 53m v1.21.10
k8s-worker1 Ready 57m v1.21.10

2.5.10 部署CoreDNS

cat > coredns.yaml << “EOF”
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
name: coredns

namespace: kube-system

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
labels:
kubernetes.io/bootstrapping: rbac-defaults
name: system:coredns
rules:

  • apiGroups:
  • “”
    resources:
  • endpoints
  • services
  • pods
  • namespaces
    verbs:
  • list
  • watch
  • apiGroups:
  • discovery.k8s.io
    resources:
  • endpointslices
    verbs:
  • list
  • watch

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
annotations:
rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: “true”
labels:
kubernetes.io/bootstrapping: rbac-defaults
name: system:coredns
roleRef:
apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
kind: ClusterRole
name: system:coredns
subjects:

  • kind: ServiceAccount
    name: coredns
    namespace: kube-system

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
name: coredns
namespace: kube-system
data:
Corefile: |
.:53 {
errors
health {
lameduck 5s
}
ready
kubernetes cluster.local in-addr.arpa ip6.arpa {
fallthrough in-addr.arpa ip6.arpa
}
prometheus :9153
forward . /etc/resolv.conf {
max_concurrent 1000
}
cache 30
loop
reload
loadbalance

}

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: coredns
namespace: kube-system
labels:
k8s-app: kube-dns
kubernetes.io/name: “CoreDNS”
spec:

replicas: not specified here:

1. Default is 1.

2. Will be tuned in real time if DNS horizontal auto-scaling is turned on.

strategy:
type: RollingUpdate
rollingUpdate:
maxUnavailable: 1
selector:
matchLabels:
k8s-app: kube-dns
template:
metadata:
labels:
k8s-app: kube-dns
spec:
priorityClassName: system-cluster-critical
serviceAccountName: coredns
tolerations:

  • key: “CriticalAddonsOnly”
    operator: “Exists”
    nodeSelector:
    kubernetes.io/os: linux
    affinity:
    podAntiAffinity:
    preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
  • weight: 100
    podAffinityTerm:
    labelSelector:
    matchExpressions:
  • key: k8s-app
    operator: In
    values: [“kube-dns”]
    topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
    containers:
  • name: coredns
    image: coredns/coredns:1.8.4
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    resources:
    limits:
    memory: 170Mi
    requests:
    cpu: 100m
    memory: 70Mi
    args: [ “-conf”, “/etc/coredns/Corefile” ]
    volumeMounts:
  • name: config-volume
    mountPath: /etc/coredns
    readOnly: true
    ports:
  • containerPort: 53
    name: dns
    protocol: UDP
  • containerPort: 53
    name: dns-tcp
    protocol: TCP
  • containerPort: 9153
    name: metrics
    protocol: TCP
    securityContext:
    allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
    capabilities:
    add:
  • NET_BIND_SERVICE
    drop:
  • all
    readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
    livenessProbe:
    httpGet:
    path: /health
    port: 8080
    scheme: HTTP
    initialDelaySeconds: 60
    timeoutSeconds: 5
    successThreshold: 1
    failureThreshold: 5
    readinessProbe:
    httpGet:
    path: /ready
    port: 8181
    scheme: HTTP
    dnsPolicy: Default
    volumes:
  • name: config-volume
    configMap:
    name: coredns
    items:
  • key: Corefile
    path: Corefile

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
name: kube-dns
namespace: kube-system
annotations:
prometheus.io/port: “9153”
prometheus.io/scrape: “true”
labels:
k8s-app: kube-dns
kubernetes.io/cluster-service: “true”
kubernetes.io/name: “CoreDNS”
spec:
selector:
k8s-app: kube-dns
clusterIP: 10.96.0.2
ports:

  • name: dns
    port: 53
    protocol: UDP
  • name: dns-tcp
    port: 53
    protocol: TCP
  • name: metrics
    port: 9153
    protocol: TCP

EOF

kubectl apply -f coredns.yaml

kubectl get pods -A

NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
kube-system calico-kube-controllers-7cc8dd57d9-tf2m5 1/1 Running 0 4m7s
kube-system calico-node-llw5w 1/1 Running 0 4m7s
kube-system calico-node-mhh6g 1/1 Running 0 4m7s
kube-system calico-node-twj99 1/1 Running 0 4m7s
kube-system calico-node-zh6xl 1/1 Running 0 4m7s
kube-system coredns-675db8b7cc-ncnf6 1/1 Running 0 26s

2.5.11 部署应用验证

cat > nginx.yaml << “EOF”

apiVersion: v1
kind: ReplicationController
metadata:
name: nginx-web
spec:
replicas: 2
selector:
name: nginx
template:
metadata:
labels:
name: nginx
spec:
containers:

  • name: nginx
    image: nginx:1.19.6
    ports:
  • containerPort: 80

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
name: nginx-service-nodeport
spec:
ports:

  • port: 80
    targetPort: 80
    nodePort: 30001
    protocol: TCP
    type: NodePort
    selector:
    name: nginx
    EOF

kubectl apply -f nginx.yaml

kubectl get pods -o wide

NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE NOMINATED NODE READINESS GATES
nginx-web-qzvw4 1/1 Running 0 58s 10.244.194.65 k8s-worker1
nginx-web-spw5t 1/1 Running 0 58s 10.244.224.1 k8s-master2

kubectl get all

NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
pod/nginx-web-qzvw4 1/1 Running 0 2m2s
pod/nginx-web-spw5t 1/1 Running 0 2m2s

NAME DESIRED CURRENT READY AGE
replicationcontroller/nginx-web 2 2 2 2m2s

NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE
service/kubernetes ClusterIP 10.96.0.1 443/TCP 3h37m
service/nginx-service-nodeport NodePort 10.96.165.114 80:30001/TCP 2m2s

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